Menstrual Cycle and Menopause: physiological processes in girls or women

Menstruation and menopause are both physiological processes associated with reproduction in higher primates. For the purpose of reproduction, the ovary ovulates in the female ovary and travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus where it stays for 3-4 days. At this time, if sperm does not come to the woman’s uterus through intercourse with a man, and if the egg is not fertilized due to this non-come, then it is destroyed and the innermost layer of the uterus (endometrium) breaks down. This ruptured membrane, bleeding produced from the accompanying mucus and its blood vessels is a mixture of liquid and its condensed and semi-condensed mixture that is continuously discharged from the vagina for several days. This discharge is menstruation or bleeding or menstruation. If the ovum released in the woman’s uterus is fertilized by the man’s ejaculated sperm and is rooted (implantation) in the endometrium, then menstruation does not occur. So cessation of menstrual flow is considered an early sign of pregnancy in women.

What is the menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle refers to a 28-day periodic physiological process of the female body. The first onset is between 10 and 16 years of age. (But it can happen before the age of nine years. It usually depends on the geographical climate, and physical strength) Since then it happens regularly every month. This cycle may occur after twenty-eight days or slightly earlier or later. The menstrual cycle is divided into three phases.

  1. The duration of the menstrual phase is five to seven days or three to four days. At this time, blood-mixed juice is secreted in the vagina. It contains blood mixed with the shed cells of the inner lining of the uterus and some glandular juices. In addition, there is a typical pattern that indicates that it is in the menstrual cycle.
  2. Proliferative phase During this phase, cells or layers of cells shed inside the uterus begin to regenerate under the influence of female hormones.
  3. Secretory stage At this time, every gland inside the uterus or maternal stomach is ready to secrete juice. Juice accumulates in the gland and the stroma or tissue between it. When a woman’s egg is fertilized by a man’s sperm as a result of sexual intercourse, it implants in the uterus (ovum). Pregnancy begins. If conception does not occur within a given period, only the next menstrual period begins.

Menstrual health

Irregular menstruation

Irregular menstruation is a common problem. In normal cases, this monthly menstruation will happen after twenty-eight days. But it may be a day or two earlier and later. A two-day fluctuation is normal. But there can be exceptions. If there is an exception, an experienced doctor must be consulted.

Delayed menstruation

Menstruation first begins, usually at the age of eleven or twelve, and is regular every month thereafter. The first menstruation can start at the age of nine years ie a little earlier. Again, it can start a little later, that is, at the age of twelve or thirteen or even later. If menstruation does not start even at the age of eighteen years, it should be treated as a problem. In that case, it is necessary to determine whether there is any physical or hormonal abnormality.


Menopause is when periods in a female body stop due to lower hormone levels. This usually happens between the ages of 45 and 55. It can sometimes happen earlier naturally. Or for reasons such as surgery to remove the ovaries (oophorectomy) or the uterus (hysterectomy), cancer treatments like chemotherapy, or a genetic reason.

Menopause is when periods in a female body stop due to lower hormone levels. This usually happens between the ages of 45 and 55.
Menopause is when periods in a female body stop due to lower hormone levels. This usually happens between the ages of 45 and 55.

Menstruation begins when adolescents reach puberty. After that, menopause continues for a long time. When a woman reaches puberty, it stops, which is called menopause. At first, the amount of menstruation decreases, and the menstrual cycle becomes shorter. At one point menstruation stops completely. At this time, various symptoms are observed in the female body. 

Menopause is a special chapter in women’s life. Generally, between the ages of 43 and 53, the menopause phase ends in a woman’s life. After the age of 40, the function of the ovaries gradually decreases. Every woman has two ovaries on either side of the uterus in the lower abdomen. Its function is ovulation and hormone secretion. Most of the female hormones are estrogen and progesterone, The male hormone testosterone is slightly secreted. Every month after the onset of menstruation, each ovary ovulates and releases hormones. After the age of 40, hormone secretion decreases. Affects the body and mind. There is nothing to be upset about in this normal occurrence.

Effects of Menopause on the Body and Mind

With the onset of Rajkshanti, various physical and mental changes or symptoms occur in women’s lives. Menstrual irregularities, sudden headaches or hot flushes, chest palpitations, excessive sleeping, insomnia, urinary problems, weight gain, irritability or mood changes can occur. These can be controlled by lifestyle changes. Irregular Menstrual Cycle This is when the menstrual cycle or menstrual cycle changes. Sometimes a little more bleeding, sometimes less bleeding. Small drops of blood can go for a long time. Menopause is usually considered to have stopped if the bleeding has stopped for at least six months.

Hot flush

In the early years of menopause, hot flushes or hot vapors come out of the face, ears, neck, and head. 75% of women suffer from hot flushes and start sweating. Usually, this sweat comes out more at night. More in the first year, usually up to five years. The body feels lethargic and the mood also becomes irritable. Insomnia increases and body fatigue decreases. The hormone estrogen affects the brain’s temperature-regulating glands.

So during menopause hot flushes occur due to a deficiency of estrogen hormone. For this reason, it is treated with estrogen hormone replacement. But expert advice must be taken. Applying cold water to the face and drinking cold water gives relief. Coffee, hot tea, cigarettes, and jordans increase hot flashes. Foods rich in vitamin B like flour, oatmeal, broccoli, cauliflower, mushrooms, almonds, sunflower seeds, beans, raisins, bananas, and red potatoes, and Foods like spinach should be eaten. Many people do not sleep well because of insomnia, hot flushes, or night sweats. In addition, many people do not want to go back to sleep when they wake up at night.

At the same time, various kinds of tension started to increase. Due to this, there is a feeling of fatigue throughout the day. Sleep medicine can be taken on the advice of a doctor. Eat light food at night, it is better not to eat oil-spicy food, cigarettes, or Alcohol habit should be avoided.

Bathing with warm water before going to sleep will help you sleep better. A little benefit can be obtained by drinking honey water. Chest palpitations may accompany hot flushes. But heart or other ailments can also cause palpitations. So at this time, the doctor’s advice should be taken. Some people’s memory is a little weak when they forget. Estrogen hormone is essential to maintain brain vitality. As a result of this hormone deficiency, simple things are often forgotten. This problem is more in the case of people who are unnecessarily stressed. Bananas, sesame, linseed, and green vegetables should be eaten more.

Vaginal dryness

Many people experience vaginal dryness due to a lack of estrogen. This can cause irritation during intercourse. There are some aqua based jellies available in the market that can be used before intercourse or estrogen vaginal creams can be used on the doctor’s advice. Urinary tract infections are also more common. Also, since the elasticity of the urinary bladder is reduced, urine often comes out when you sneeze or cough. For this, pelvic exercises and drinking 8-10 glasses of water daily should be done. It is better not to have cold drinks. Doctor’s advice should be taken.

Weight gain

Walking should be practiced to keep weight under control. Don’t eat high-calorie foods. That is the less food like rice, bread, salt, sweets, and fat, the better. But vegetables and fruits can be eaten more. It is better to eat less chocolate, ice cream, and fried food. Osteoporosis is the gradual weakening of bones due to a lack of estrogen. This problem usually occurs after the age of 60, but the process of bone loss begins much earlier. Osteoporosis is the sudden breaking of bones with minor trauma. Especially the bones of the waist, thigh, skull, or hand are broken. So some lifestyle changes and dietary changes help maintain bone density; For example, first of all, exercise or exercise or walking is necessary. Secondly, calcium-rich foods such as eggs, milk (noni tola), and small fish, Eat more green vegetables. Calcium pills should be taken if necessary. Thirdly, there are various drugs and hormones for people who are developing osteoporosis, which should be taken under the advice of a specialist.

Heart problems

Estrogen hormone helps keep bones strong and also helps regulate blood cholesterol levels. It is seen that heart problems increase after menopause in women. For this reason, the estrogen hormone can be used many times on the doctor’s advice. Heart problems increase with age due to high blood pressure, diabetes, weight gain, and cholesterol.

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